Itu-t sg 12 r
Working methods of ITU-T. Questions Q. A JCA may help to coordinate the planned work effort in terms of subject matter, time-frames for meetings, collocated meetings where necessary and publication goals. Work continues to be conducted by the relevant study groups and the results are subject to the normal approval processes within each study group. This new type of group was defined by WTSA in Events aiming to increase the dialogue between experts working on the standardization of ICTs and academia.
These forward looking events will also seek to identify new topics for standardization. Yearly event.
The experts in a Question work area can meet at a study group meeting basically every monthsat a working party meeting may be organized in between study group meetings or at interim rapporteur group meetings. However, only a SG meeting can decide on the final approval of a Recommendation. Generally organized in Geneva. However, upon invitation by Members the meeting may be held outside of Geneva e. The date and venue of these meetings are shown on the relevant SG web page.
To be available shortly after the closure of the meetings Rec.
Meeting documentation WHO can contribute? Thank you for your attention. Create Presentation Survey Quiz Lead-form. Download Presentation. Skip this Video. Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds. Share Presentations.
SG12: Performance, QoS and QoE
Email Presentation to Friend. Related More by user.However, most of the hyperlinks point to public documents which can be downloaded free of charge. A summary of SG13 work program provides the timing of each work item, e.
Ved P. ITU Y. This ITU Y. Machine Learning holds great promise to enhance network management and orchestration. Drawing insight from network-generated data, Machine Learning can yield predictions to support the optimization of network operations and maintenance. This optimization is becoming increasingly challenging, and increasingly important, as networks gain in complexity to support the coexistence of a diverse range of information and communication technology ICT services.
Network operators aim to fuel Machine Learning models with data correlated from multiple technologies and levels of the network. And they are in need of interfaces to transfer data and trained Machine Learning models across Machine Learning functionalities at multiple levels of the network. The ITU Y. The standard includes a unique focus on the future. Another ITU standard will support the assessment of intelligence levels across different parts of the network.
The series of ITU standards will be completed by a standard supporting the interoperability of Machine Learning marketplaces, marketplaces hosting repositories of Machine Learning models.
Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again.This scientific brief provides an overview of the modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, what is known about when infected people transmit the virus, and the implications for infection prevention and control precautions within and outside health facilities.
This scientific brief is not a systematic review. Rather, it reflects the consolidation of rapid reviews of publications in peer-reviewed journals and of non-peer-reviewed manuscripts on pre-print servers, undertaken by WHO and partners. Preprint findings should be interpreted with caution in the absence of peer review.
Understanding how, when and in what types of settings SARS-CoV-2 spreads is critical to develop effective public health and infection prevention and control measures to break chains of transmission. This section briefly describes possible modes of transmission for SARS-CoV-2, including contact, droplet, airborne, fomite, fecal-oral, bloodborne, mother-to-child, and animal-to-human transmission. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes respiratory illness ranging from mild disease to severe disease and death, and some people infected with the virus never develop symptoms.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur through direct, indirect, or close contact with infected people through infected secretions such as saliva and respiratory secretions or their respiratory droplets, which are expelled when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks or sings.
Indirect contact transmission involving contact of a susceptible host with a contaminated object or surface fomite transmission may also be possible see below. Airborne transmission is defined as the spread of an infectious agent caused by the dissemination of droplet nuclei aerosols that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time. The physics of exhaled air and flow physics have generated hypotheses about possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through aerosols.
Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. One experimental study quantified the amount of droplets of various sizes that remain airborne during normal speech. However, the authors acknowledge that this relies on the independent action hypothesis, which has not been validated for humans and SARS-CoV Experimental studies have generated aerosols of infectious samples using high-powered jet nebulizers under controlled laboratory conditions.
These studies found SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in air samples within aerosols for up to 3 hours in one study 21 and 16 hours in another, which also found viable replication-competent virus. Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment PPE.
Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission. Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces 40 have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice 7in restaurants 41 or in fitness classes.
However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters. Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people e.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions
Respiratory secretions or droplets expelled by infected individuals can contaminate surfaces and objects, creating fomites contaminated surfaces. Despite consistent evidence as to SARS-CoV-2 contamination of surfaces and the survival of the virus on certain surfaces, there are no specific reports which have directly demonstrated fomite transmission.
People who come into contact with potentially infectious surfaces often also have close contact with the infectious person, making the distinction between respiratory droplet and fomite transmission difficult to discern. However, fomite transmission is considered a likely mode of transmission for SARS-CoV-2, given consistent findings about environmental contamination in the vicinity of infected cases and the fact that other coronaviruses and respiratory viruses can transmit this way.
However, the role of bloodborne transmission remains uncertain; and low viral titers in plasma and serum suggest that the risk of transmission through this route may be low. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child would necessitate replicative and infectious virus in breast milk being able to reach target sites in the infant and also to overcome infant defense systems. Evidence to date shows that SARS-CoV-2 is most closely related to known betacoronaviruses in bats; the role of an intermediate host in facilitating transmission in the earliest known human cases remains unclear.
Current evidence suggests that humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 can infect other mammals, including dogs 58cats 59and farmed mink. WHO has recently published a scientific brief outlining what is known about when a person may be able to spread, based on the severity of their illness.
Detection of viral RNA does not necessarily mean that a person is infectious and able to transmit the virus to another person. SARS-CoV-2 transmission appears to mainly be spread via droplets and close contact with infected symptomatic cases. Early data from China suggested that people without symptoms could infect others. This distinction is important when developing public health strategies to control transmission.
The extent of truly asymptomatic infection in the community remains unknown. The proportion of people whose infection is asymptomatic likely varies with age due to the increasing prevalence of underlying conditions in older age groups and thus increasing risk of developing severe disease with increasing ageand studies that show that children are less likely to show clinical symptoms compared to adults.
Multiple studies have shown that people infect others before they themselves became ill, 1042698283 which is supported by available viral shedding data see above.There is also one imported case who has been placed on stay-home notice upon arrival in Singapore, said MOH in the press release.
The Singapore permanent resident, a year-old woman, returned from India on Jul 6 and had been tested while serving her notice. Those who had been identified as close contacts of confirmed cases would already have been notified by MOH. The National Environment Agency will also engage the management of affected premises to provide guidance on cleaning and disinfection. In all, 42, have fully recovered from the infection and have been discharged from hospitals or community care facilities.
There are currently confirmed cases who are still in hospital. Students returned to school on a weekly rotational basis in Phase 1 of Singapore's exit from the "circuit breaker" on Jun 1, with graduating students attending school on weekdays. Singapore entered Phase 2 of its reopening from Jun 19, with the gradual resumption of operations by more businesses.
From Monday, some cinemas across Singapore will reopenwith up to 50 patrons allowed in each cinema hall. Skip Navigation Jump to Main.Additional search criteria. Toggle navigation Datatracker. Liaison Statements Search. From Group s. To Group s. Start Date. End Date. Response to questions about QUIC network level troubleshooting capabilities. LS on SG17 work item X. LS on New Recommendation Y. IETF work related to the management and orchestration of network slicing. LS - Initiation of approval process for G.
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Technical and operational characteristics of the fixed service applications and their spectrum needs associated with work on WRC agenda item 1. LS on invitation to update the information in the cloud computing standards roadmap and remark on the matrix for standardization gap analysis. Approval of OCC 1.Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. Led by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, the PAP -- which has been in power since -- won 83 out of 93 seats in parliament, securing a super majority.
The Workers' Party took the remaining 10 seats -- the most ever held by opposition lawmakers since the city-state's first general election in The PAP's share of the popular vote also slid to Read More.
According to the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistanceat least 45 countries and territories have decided to hold national or subnational elections since late February despite concerns over the coronavirus pandemic, while at least 67 countries have postponed their polls.
As Singapore voters headed to polls on Friday, the country's health ministry reported another new cases of Covid as at 12 p. The number of new cases in Singapore has dropped significantly from its peak in Aprilwhen more than 1, fresh infections were reported in a single day.Avril Lavigne - When You're Gone (Official Video)
Following a two-month lockdown, the country began a gradual lifting of its coronavirus restrictions on June 2. Last month, Lee said the election would "clear the decks and give the new government a fresh, full five-year mandate.As school officials debate whether to reopen this fall, physicians, teachers, and a prominent ethicist markedly disagreed on whether sending children back into the classroom is safe for their communities. Some pediatricians are driving the push to reopen, while infectious disease specialists, family physicians, and teachers appear more wary, concerned that schools could become "new hotspots for the virus.
At the heart of the debate are many unanswered questions, with arguably the most important being: How often are children infected, and how contagious are their infections? The American Academy of Pediatrics AAP issued guidance in late June that strongly recommends children resume in-person classes in the fall.
While acknowledging that "many questions remain," the AAP was confident in reopening given "the preponderance of evidence" that children "may be less likely to become infected and to spread infection," as well as less likely to become symptomatic or develop severe illness when they do contract the virus.
The AAP guidance does emphasize the importance of responding quickly to "new information," but drives home its message that "all policy considerations for the coming school year should start with a goal of having students physically present in school.
President Trump has made it clear he wants governors to reopen schools, even threatening to withhold funding from states that don't force these reopenings.
On Wednesday, during the Wednesday task force briefing, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos quoted from the academy's guidance, stating that "keeping schools closed places children and adolescents at considerable risk of morbidity and in some cases mortality. The White House has already shown its influence over these decisions. However, in an interview with Good Morning America on Thursday, Redfield clarified that the basic CDC guidance would remain in place, but additional reference documents would be included.
The AAP's statement makes clear it determined that the risk of viral transmission is the lesser danger compared with the social, emotional, and academic consequences of remaining home, and believes the evidence is on its side.
Children do not appear to be 'super-spreaders ,'" Dooley said, noting that only "very limited cases" have shown children passing the virus to adults. A press representative was present during the phone interview with Dooley.
While "tens of thousands of children" of essential workers continued going to daycare centers and emergency childcare facilities throughout the pandemic, Dooley noted "there have not been cases of major outbreaks or spreading events in those areas. The report summarized the experience of China, Denmark, Norway, and Singapore in reopening schools in late March or April and also includes the experience of Taiwan, which kept schools open nationally, while implementing mandatory and temporary closures in areas with high infection rates.
All five countries' strategies were viewed by the policy brief's authors as successful "to date" in avoiding the spread of COVID All instituted temperature checks and a range of physical distancing measures.
Denmark and China reduced their class sizes and Norway instituted a maximum class size of 15 students for younger grades and 20 for older grades. The five countries also developed quarantine or school closure policies. Taiwan will suspend a particular class for 14 days if one case is discovered and will suspend school for 14 days if two or more cases are identified. In Denmark, anyone who's sick is required to remain home for 48 hours.
The institute acknowledged that countries that reopened their schools "differ significantly from the experiences so far in the United States" with regard to their capacity "to test and track cases" and to "isolate individuals who have been exposed to infection," all factors linked to their success in avoiding viral spread. The policy brief further stated that it "has not investigated the health implications of using any of these practices in the United States and does not endorse the safety or effectiveness of these practices or of any medical practices.
AAP also cited an editorial published in The BMJ in May that leans on studies of widespread community testing in Iceland and South Korea which found children were "significantly underrepresented" in positive cases. The authors also cited a case study of a cluster in the French Alps in which one child with COVID failed to transmit the virus to anyone "despite exposure to more than a hundred children in different schools and a ski resort.
The AAP recommends that older children in elementary and secondary schools wear face coverings, social distance, and space their desks feet apart when feasible. They also suggested that schools eliminate lockers, and transition to a block schedule for older students where classes run longer each day, but terms are shorter and when possible, rotate teachers for each new class rather than crowd hallways with students transferring place to place.
For children in pre-kindergarten, the academy did not suggest face-masking and physical distancing, believing both too difficult to implement in that age group. Instead it advocated separating kids into cohorts, using outdoor spaces whenever possible, and limiting unnecessary visitors.